Endotoxins are small bacterially-derived hydrophobic lipopolysaccharides (LPS) molecules locating in the outer cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxins consist of a core polysaccharide chain, O-specific polysaccharide side chains (O-antigen) and a lipid compenent, Lipid A, which is responsible for the toxic effects. Bacteria shed endotoxin in large amounts upon cell death and when they are actively growing and dividing. A single Escherichia coli contains about 2 million LPS molecules per cell.
Endotoxin can easily contaminate labwares, and its presence can significantly impart both in vitro and in vivo experiments. And for parenteral products, parenteral products contaminated with endotoxins including LPS can lead to the development of fever, induction of inflammatory response, shock, organ failure and death in human. For dialysis products, LPS can be transferred through membrane with large pore size by back-filtration from the dialysis fluid to the blood, inflammatory problems may be caused accordingly.
Endotoxin is detected by the Lyophilized Amebocyte Lysate (TAL). Bioendo has been dedicated to researching, developing and producing TAL reagent for more than four decades. Our products cover all techniques employed to detect endotoxin, which are gel-clot technique, turbidimetric technique, and chromogenic technique.
Post time: Jan-29-2019